Vyatta Firewall Basics and Configuration

For a post that is a little more advanced, try this one: Create a Router With Front Firewall Using Vyatta on VMware Workstation.

Otherwise… read on. 🙂

A few weeks ago, I installed Vyatta Open Source as a router internal to my network to see how it handled traffic between multiple subnets.  To put it plainly, it worked like a champ!  I put the router in place, assigned IP addresses to the NICs (network interface cards), and let the system do its thing.  It now connects traffic between my physical network, my production virtual network, and my virtual lab running on ESX 3.5.  I can easily manage most firewalls and routers that have a GUI but Vyatta presented a new challenge to me.  In the case of this system, for some tasks it’s a lot easier to use the command line interface (CLI).

So without further ado, here’s the basics of Vyatta’s firewall.

console001

Keep reading…

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Each NIC on the Vyatta build can have 3 firewalls associated with it.  By default, before you setup the firewalls, they are wide open, blocking no traffic at all.  That’s right, all traffic is allowed through the NICs all ways, inbound, outbound, and local destined traffic.

As I mentioned Vyatta has 3 firewalls per NIC.  These firewalls are inbound – traffic coming into the NIC to pass through to another IP or subnet, outbound – traffic leaving the NIC, and local – traffic destined for the NIC.  Each of these firewalls can be configured to lock the NIC down, and after configuring the firewall, all traffic not included in firewall rules is now blocked, versus the default state of open.  For example, if you configure a firewall rule to allow traffic passing through the firewall from a specific IP address, all other traffic will be blocked.

So we’ll use a scenario to explain it further.  This scenario consists of 3 separate subnets – lab (192.168.50.0/24), production servers (192.168.60.0/24), and clients (192.168.70.0/24) on which is also connected to the Internet through a router/gateway.  Vyatta is more than capable of filling the gateway router role as well, but this scenario is for internal use only.  Vyatta is configured with 3 NICs, one will reside on each subnet.  The following diagram illustrates the configuration and traffic.

Sample Network Diagram

It’s best to configure all of your rules using a text editor so that you can easily edit and modify rules and implement them all at once.  As well as being able to have a handy backup of your router’s configuration.

We want the lab subnet (192.168.50.0/24) to be able to reach the client subnet (192.168.70.0/24) so it has Internet access, but not the production server subnet (192.168.60.0/24). We want the production server subnet to be able to reach the client subnet, again for Internet access, but not the lab subnet.  We want the client subnet to be able to reach both the lab and the production server subnet.  In addition, we want a specific IP address to be able to manage Vyatta from the client subnet, but no others.

We have 3 rule sets on each NIC, so our rule set for the lab subnet (NIC eth0) will be configured as:

set firewall name eth0InFilter rule 10 action accept
set firewall name eth0InFilter rule 10 source address 192.168.50.0/24
set firewall name eth0InFilter rule 10 destination address 192.168.70.0/24
set interfaces ethernet eth0 firewall in eth0InFilter

set firewall name eth0OutFilter rule 10 action accept
set firewall name eth0OutFilter rule 10 action source address 192.168.70.0/24
set firewall name eth0OutFilter rule 10 action destination address 192.168.50.0/24
set interfaces ethernet eth0 firewall out eth0OutFilter

set firewall name eth0LocalFilter rule 1000 action reject
set firewall name eth0LocalFilter rule 1000 source address 0.0.0.0/0
set interfaces ethernet eth0 firewall local eth0LocalFilter

Tip:  I usually create rules in steps of 10 in case I need to go back and add a rule in the middle somewhere since firewall rules are first come / first served.

– The set firewall commands begin with assigning the action [accept|reject|drop].
– Next they assign the source as [address address|port port|mac-address mac-addr].
– After that, if necessary, they assign a destination as [address address|port port|mac-address mac-addr].

In the last line of each block, we assign the rule to the NIC by rule name defined in the previous lines and target [in|out|local].

Remember that in the beginning of this post I told you that unless a firewall rule is specified, that portion of the NIC (in|out|local) is wide open?  So to address the local traffic, we are ‘reject’ing all from source address 0.0.0.0/0.  You could also set the destination to the IP address of the NIC.  I haven’t specifically tried this rule, but it should work either way.  With this rule in place, all traffic directed to the IP address of this NIC should be rejected.  You could also use ‘drop’ to have the router just drop the packets instead of resetting the connection.

Tip: When there are no matching rules, traffic is rejected.  With this in mind, you could even set up a simple dummy rule that blocks port 80 traffic, ie. http traffic.  With this rule in place, all other traffic on that that hits that firewall would be blocked as well.  You would simply change rule 1000 for eth0LocalFilter source to:

set firewall name eth0LocalFilter rule 1000 source port 80

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The rules for the production networks routing would be very similar to the rules above, as well as configuring rules from the client subnet to the other subnets.  You can configure rules as you need them to allow traffic from one place to the other.

For restricting access to manage the Vyatta router to a specific IP address on a specific target NIC in the router, the following commands would be used for the example above:

set firewall name eth3LocalFilter rule 10 action accept
set firewall name eth3LocalFilter rule 10 source address 192.168.70.170
set firewall name eth3LocalFilter rule 10 destination address 192.168.70.100
set interfaces ethernet eth3 firewall local eth3LocalFilter

Machines using IP address 192.168.70.170 would be allowed traffic to 192.168.70.100, which is the Vyatta router, and therefore be allowed to manage it.

This, along with the documentation, should be enough to get you off the ground in getting your firewalls set up.  Vyatta is a very powerful, enterprise ready product that can and should be used to secure your network if you can’t afford or don’t want to afford the likes of Cisco.  I don’t know if Vyatta is on par with Cisco for performance, configuration, reporting, etc, but for the price, I’ll stick with Vyatta Community Edition for my network. 🙂

Vyatta can be run in a virtual machine, can be downloaded as a VMware Workstation virtual appliance and then imported into ESX, can run directly on a multitude of hardware, and can even run directly from CD, without installing on a hard drive (though this configuration obviously does not allow you to save changes that you make in the router software.)

Make sure to check out Vyatta’s documentation.  It is VERY thorough, but a little hard to read.  The file you’re looking for in particular for firewall stuff is: Vyatta_SecurityRef_VC5_v03.pdf.  You can download it directly from their site after filling out a short registration form.  http://www.vyatta.com.  While you’re there, pull down the rest of the docs too, since you’re filling out a form anyway.  I’d post the doc on my site for your convenience, but it would likely be outdated quickly, and I don’t want to take any traffic or statistics away from Vyatta since registration is mandatory to download the docs.  I filled out the registration forms for the downloads and have not seen a single piece of spam from Vyatta. 😉

Quick reference for the commands that I used:

[set|delete|show] firewall name name rule rule-num action [accept|reject|drop]
[set|delete|show] firewall name name rule rule-num source [address address|port port|mac-address mac-addr]
[set|delete|show] firewall name name rule rule-num destination [address address|port port|mac-address mac-addr]
[set|show] interfaces ethernet ethX firewall [in|out|local] name

Items in italics are input variables. Items between brackets [] are parameters.

I hope this post helps someone to understand Vyatta’s CLI (command line interface) in regards to setting up the firewalls.  Also remember that all of this needs to be done in configure mode and commit needs to be run after changes have been made.

Good luck and happy networking.  If you run into trouble, post here and I’ll try to respond ASAP.  If this article works out well for you, let me know too. 🙂

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83 thoughts on “Vyatta Firewall Basics and Configuration”

  1. Thats a good idea, why did I didn’t thought of that before; deleting the listen-address and recreate it. I am gonna try that and let you know how it works out.

    Is it necessary that I create a nat rule for the VPN? I did something like this:
    rule 30 {
    description Allow-VPN-Connection
    destination {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    port 1723
    }
    inbound-interface eth1
    inside-address {
    address 192.168.2.151-192.68.2.161
    }
    protocol tcp
    type destination

    I will let you know how it goes as soon as I tested it out.
    Also I entered the vyatta eth1 WAN address in the router and the VPN port just like I did for the RDP. I remembered that the router itself has a firewall and will block the VPN connection from coming in like what it use to do with the RDP connection. Whats your opinion on that?

  2. Guess what. As soon as I create the local firewall on eth1 WAN interface all the computers in the lab stop browsing the internet. I try it on the local interface eth0 and its same result, the internet stops routing to the machines in the lab and it kicked me off the ssh and GUI. I had to connect back to the original host pc and delete it.
    What am I doing wrong?

  3. @Jason Try assigning the same firewall rules that you have on the external to the local. Since you’re locking up the local, it’s likely going to shut everything that isn’t a rule down and since you’re nat’ing, everything is going to appear to be coming through both the IN channel and the LOCAL channel. Make a single set of rules and assign them to both. Also, SSH and GUI use the LOCAL channel, so you’ll need to configure rules for those as well. I didn’t realize that you weren’t using the LOCAL firewall on your external NIC. You should, because external traffic may get through if it’s local destined.

    You won’t need a NAT rule for the VPN since you’ll be issuing VPN addresses that are on the same subnet, so there’s no translation needed. Any routing through VPN would be direct. Just the VPN rule and the firewall rule should be good. And that’s the ‘local’ firewall on the external interface.

    You will need to open the VPN port just like you did for the RDP. The only difference is you won’t be forwarding to another IP address like you did with the RDP client.

  4. For the router firewall configuration I did it the same way I did for the RDP connection. I use the eth1 WAN address and the VPN port 1723. IS that correct or if not what exactly do I need to do.

  5. Take a look at my configuration and tell me where am I going wrong and how to correct it.

    firewall {
    all-ping enable
    broadcast-ping disable
    conntrack-expect-table-size 4096
    conntrack-hash-size 4096
    conntrack-table-size 32768
    conntrack-tcp-loose enable
    ip-src-route disable
    ipv6-receive-redirects disable
    ipv6-src-route disable
    log-martians enable
    name FWTELNET {
    default-action drop
    rule 1 {
    action reject
    destination {
    port telnet
    }
    protocol tcp
    source {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    }
    }
    rule 2 {
    action accept
    destination {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    }
    protocol all
    source {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    }
    }
    }
    name WAN_IN {
    default-action drop
    rule 10 {
    action accept
    description “Allow VPN connection”
    destination {
    address (wan ip address from isp)
    port 1723
    }
    protocol tcp
    }
    rule 20 {
    action accept
    description Allow-MSTSC-Access
    destination {
    address 192.168.2.3
    port 3389
    }
    log enable
    protocol tcp
    }
    }
    receive-redirects disable
    send-redirects enable
    source-validation disable
    syn-cookies enable
    }
    interfaces {
    ethernet eth0 {
    address 192.168.2.6/24
    description “Internal LAN”
    duplex auto
    hw-id 00:0d:87:53:94:44
    smp_affinity auto
    speed auto
    }
    ethernet eth1 {
    address dhcp
    description “External WAN”
    duplex auto
    firewall {
    in {
    name WAN_IN
    }
    }
    vpn {
    pptp {
    remote-access {
    authentication {
    local-users {
    username vpnuser {
    password ************
    }
    }
    mode local
    }
    client-ip-pool {
    start 192.168.2.151
    stop 192.168.2.161
    }
    outside-address (wan ip address from isp)

  6. I have observed your vpn firewall configuration and another person own and I noticed that in both of them there were not destination address in the firewall rule just the destination port alone. Should I remove the destination address? I used my WAN IP for the destination address.

  7. I removed it and still getting the same error. Connection error 800…something like that. Thats what I get when trying to connect using windows 7, I get a different error when I use windows xp

  8. @Jason: Assign WAN_IN to the LOCAL firewall on eth1.

    set interfaces ethernet eth1 firewall local name WAN_IN

    If that works, then create a new firewall ruleset and title it something like, WAN_IN_TO_ROUTER, and add the firewall rule to it that allows VPN. I believe the problem is that you are using the IN firewall when you need to open the port on the LOCAL firewall.

    Each interface has 3 firewalls: in, out, and local. Local is the firewall that is hit by traffic that is set to terminate at the router.

  9. I create a new firewall rule and add a new firewall rule that allows vpn to it and assign it to eth1 local firewall and i’m still getting connection failed with error 800.
    This is the new configuration I did. After I created the firewall rule and assign it to eth1 local firewall I notice that the internet stops browsing on the computers in the lab.
    Please point out the errors if there’s any and make the necessary connections. Feel free to edit my configuration and make the necessary adjustments. My apologies for not understanding and not getting it right away.
    Thank you.
    name FWTELNET {
    default-action drop
    rule 1 {
    action reject
    destination {
    port telnet
    }
    protocol tcp
    source {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    }
    }
    rule 2 {
    action accept
    destination {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    }
    protocol all
    source {
    address 0.0.0.0/0
    }
    }
    }
    name VPN {
    default-action drop
    description “VPN to LAN”
    rule 1 {
    action accept
    description “VPN to LAN”
    destination {
    port 1723
    }
    protocol tcp
    }
    }
    name WAN_IN {
    default-action drop
    rule 10 {
    action accept
    description “Allow VPN connection”
    destination {
    port 1723
    }
    protocol tcp
    }
    rule 20 {
    action accept
    description Allow-MSTSC-Access
    destination {
    address 192.168.2.3
    port 3389
    }
    log enable
    protocol tcp
    }
    rule 30 {
    action accept
    description “Allow PPTP access from the Internet”
    protocol gre
    }

    ethernet eth1 {
    address dhcp
    description “External WAN”
    duplex auto
    firewall {
    in {
    name WAN_IN
    }
    local {
    name VPN

  10. @Jason: Without being able to test things with your exact configuration, it’s difficult for me to identify what the issues are.

    I would guess that what happened when you added the local firewall to eth1, it started blocking response packets that are coming back from the browser sessions. Can you try adding the VPN rule to the WAN_IN firewall and applying that firewall to both the IN and LOCAL channels?

    Basically I’m trying to see if we can come up with a single firewall configuration for both the IN and LOCAL so that web surfing traffic doesn’t get blocked. Those returning packets have a local destination, and I’m not sure in which order Vyatta processes but those packets have to be retagged and sent back to the clients.

    I don’t know if that makes sense to you or not, but I think it should work.

  11. Thats what I did the first time before I created another VPN rule. It was the originally WAN_IN firewall I was using for the VPN rule and I applied it to the local firewall and thats where I noticed that it blocks the internet. I even just did it a while ago and its the same ting. I even completely remove all the firewall from the eth1 interface and its the same thing. I also even disable the firewall from the router and its the same thing. I am wondering if you need a destination address in the firewall rule and which IP address should be used, the WAN IP or the internal server IP.
    Anyways, thank you for all your help which you have given me over the past few weeks. I will always be grateful.

  12. @Jason: My pleasure on trying to help you work it out. The only other thing I can think of doing, is having you post you whole configuration and loading it in my lab and troubleshooting it from there. Let me know if you want me to do that, otherwise, good luck.

  13. Yes sure I would love for you to do that. I don’t mind. Yes please. Just tell me where to post it whether here or your email.

  14. Hi

    I am using vyatta and using some nat rule which are working absolutely fine.But when i configure firewall it gets configured easily but when i need to implement the firewall on nic for the incoming traffic(making in rule) to lan machine.It stops working.I am pasting the config.please suggest the optimal solution

    set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 description “ALLOW WAN TRAFFIC”
    set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 action accept
    set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 destination address 10.10.76.10(wanip address)
    set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 destination port 80,443,21,2269
    set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 log disable
    set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 protocol tcp
    Till now everything is working fine.but the moment i assign the in rule on internet facing nic byusing below command it stop working

    set interfaces ethernet eth0 firewall in name INTERNET_IN

    Thanks in advance

  15. @saurabh: Check out this post. It’s more appropriate for what you’re trying to do: http://d3planet.com/rtfb/2010/08/09/create-a-router-with-front-firewall-using-vyatta-on-vmware-workstation/

    From a quick look, it looks like you’re not going for the ‘plug and play’ approach and attempting to block all ports except for the ones listed. Is this true? Also, your destination address for INTERNET_IN traffic should be your internal subnet. This configuration can be a problem however since you’re telling Vyatta to accept traffic on those ports whether it was requested or not. You could add a line controlling the state that would be accepted, ie. set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 1 state [new|established|related] enable. Since you’re using NAT it is true that traffic with no internally destined IP address would be dropped, but why chance a packet hack.

    The link I posted above has a complete sample configuration that may give you some more ideas. I hope this helps. Comment back on the other thread if you would please. 🙂

  16. Hello,
    Do you know of anyway I can block secure websites (https)(SSL) in vyatta and also how to block the SSL port or ports in general.

    1. @Jason, actually using Vyatta, when you activate the firewall, all ports are closed with a default action assigned of deny. So if you haven’t allowed it, when you enable the firewall it will be blocked. Check out this post: http://d3planet.com/rtfb/2010/08/09/create-a-router-with-front-firewall-using-vyatta-on-vmware-workstation/; It deals with configuring Vyatta as a router/firewall.

      You can also create an explicit rule on the firewall that will block 443 for TCP traffic with a rule something like this:
      vyatta@vyatta:~$ set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 30 action reject
      vyatta@vyatta:~$ set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 30 protocol tcp
      vyatta@vyatta:~$ set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 30 destination address 0.0.0.0/0
      vyatta@vyatta:~$ set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 30 destination port 443
      vyatta@vyatta:~$ set firewall name INTERNET_IN rule 30 description HTTPS_INBOUND

      Make sure the rule number is lower than any rule that accepts traffic. With firewall rules, they are first come first served.

      Let me know if this works for you.
      Good luck.

  17. Shall we blaock SMTP ports vyatta ,

    I want block SMTP (Port 25) from my private network to public internet network.

    1. @Suresh, check out this link for a little more in-depth look at Vyatta. Basically, you need to enable the (in) firewall on the NIC connected to the internal network or enable the (out) firewall on the NIC connected to the Internet. Then you can set the ‘block’ rule up on port 25 TCP. If there is no current firewall enabled for the outbound traffic, you can set the default rule to allow, and then block the ports that are necessary. Remember that each NIC has 3 firewalls (in, out, and local).

  18. Hi,

    Help me please. Someone is using our internet and i want it blocked. How to block or put firewall to it? give me examples please and also please give also example how to unblock.

    Thank you very much.

    1. @Adam: What information do you have about the person that is using your Internet? Same IP address used every time? Mac address? etc.? Also, is your firewall currently configured (in, out, local)? Are you using Vyatta as a router/gateway or pure router?

      1. @Clement DeLarge: About the person, actually many of them is using our internet and they have the same IP addresses. and yes it is Mac address. About Firewall, i really don’t have any idea of it. We are using vyatta as router/gateway. i want them be block because we are a resort. i want to block them than changing our passwords of our routers.
        Please help me sir clement.

        Thanks

        Best regards

        Adam

      2. @Adam: There are a few ways to go about it, but it could end up hurting your service. I assume they are connecting via WIFI, is that correct? Are they using your resorts internal network or the network for your guests? Or is it the same network for both? Is your Vyatta router sitting on the Internet? Or is it routing traffic through to your Internet router? If you view your Vyatta config, you should be able to see if your firewall is engaged on it or not. Basically the process would involve using your WIFI router or your Vyatta router, or even your Internet router, to block the IP addresses or mac addresses that the computers are using that you don’t want on your network. You really want to be able to block them at the source however (likely your wifi router) otherwise they will still be on your network which poses a security risk. Without knowing if your firewall is currently active or not, engaging it can disconnect everyone instead of just your targets. Do you know how to use the CLI on Vyatta? You can show your config by going into ‘configuration’ mode and typing ‘show -all’. You can also look in the GUI and see if you have entries under firewall. How comfortable are you with the product?

  19. hi, i can’t figure vyatta firewall out.. help please… i’ll keep the diagram simple
    assuming I have 2 computers
    comp A(192.168.13.200.2/30) — eth0– vyatta–eth1—– 192.168.40.2/24(comp B)
    i have configured eth0 = 192.168.200.1 eth1 = 192.168.40.1

    What i want to accomplish is for computer A to access comp B, but Comp B should not be able to access comp A

    comp a is able to ping comp b in this process and vice versa…

    however when i input My firewall config:
    set firewall name allow1 rule 10 action accept
    set firewall name allow1 rule 10 source address 192.168.200.2
    set firewall name allow1 rule10 destination address 192.168.40.2
    commit
    set interface ether eth0 firewall in name allow1

    set firewall name deny1 rule 10 action drop
    set firewall name deny1 rule 10 source address 192.168.40.2
    set firewall name deny1 rule 10 destination address 192.168.200.2
    commit
    set interface ether eth0 firewall out name deny1

    i’m expecting that comp A can access comp b .. .but b cant access comp A
    results … comp a can’t ping comp b.. .and comp b can’t ping comp a…
    vyatta is dropping all packets…

    Please help thanks!

    1. Unfortunately I don’t have Vyatta up and running right now, so I can’t give you exactly what you need, but here’s the method.

      For CompA, firewall needs to be set to allow or leave it wide open just to keep things simple, at least for the beginning. Only turn it on if you need it, after you’ve confirmed open communication with CompB. Easier to troubleshoot 1 at a time.

      For CompB, you need a rule that allows established (or it might be called well-established) communication back across the router to CompA. That means that CompA can initiate a connection to CompB and the router will allow CompB to respond, since CompA started it, but will not let CompB initiate anything.

      Vyatta is very ‘direct’ in that when you configure a rule it is exactly how you configure it. So your deny rule, which explicitly states to drop traffic from 40.2 to 200.2 is going to drop *everything* including ping responses.

      The way the rules are set up now, CompA may be able to send the ping through but you’d never know because the router would block the response from CompB.

      Another way to handle it could be by using NAT. Then the router would be the gatekeeper and only shell all responses back to the requester, and compB would not be able to initiate anything because it would only see the router.

      If I get the chance to go through the documentation, I may be able to send some commands your way, but as I said, I don’t currently have Vyatta up and running.

      1. Thank you for the quick reply.. “For CompB, you need a rule that allows established (or it might be called well-established) communication back across the router to CompA. That means that CompA can initiate a connection to CompB and the router will allow CompB to respond, since CompA started it, but will not let CompB initiate anything.”~ i think this is the stateful scenario.. i haven’t thought of it being placed on the interface to comp B, i tried it on eth0 / comp A since that’s where the originating packet will come, hmm maybe that’s where i’m going wrong… Sorry for bothering you, it’s just that the documentation is too vague, and the samples are using accept packets, not much example of a to and from communication, and drop samples… anyway, i hope i could get to see some commands on this, as there’s no other example out there discussing about this.. .Appreciate your help a lot and good job on your post…

    2. @emafia

      Check out this post: it has a sample ruleset that you can use… http://d3planet.com/rtfb/2010/08/09/create-a-router-with-front-firewall-using-vyatta-on-vmware-workstation/

      Just skip the workstation stuff and jump into Vyatta if it sounds right to you. I’ve copied some info from that post that should help you right away though.

      Sample that you’ll have to adapt to your environment
      >set firewall name ALLOW_ESTABLISHED
      >set firewall name ALLOW_ESTABLISHED rule 5
      >set firewall name ALLOW_ESTABLISHED rule 5 action accept
      >set firewall name ALLOW_ESTABLISHED rule 5 state established enable

      You can add further specifications to this ruleset by adding specific source and destination IPs of course.

      Make sure that this rule # is lower than the deny rule. Firewalls generally process rules as first-match wins.

      Then apply the rule to that interface.

      Also just noticed that you’re only applying the rules to the 200.1 interface.

      Apply the allow rule to the interface on that network’s side. It’ll keep things more organized and easier for you. So you want an allow rule on the 200 side. The allow established rule and the block rule on the 40 side. Both rules on the ‘In’ firewalls. You can then further secure your router with ‘out’ and ‘local’ rules if you want, but from a technical perspective, if the ‘in’ rules are airtight, then you won’t need ‘out’ rules unless you’re specifically trying to block traffic or protocols to a specific network, and the ‘local’ rules are only there to protect the firewall itself or if you’re going to do port forwarding or something like that.

      Hope this helps.
      Clement

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